Selective Elimination of Leukemic Stem Cells
Published: 2020-05-08 |
Source: University of Zurich
A team of scientists and physicians from the University of Zurich (UZH), the University Hospital Zurich (USZ) and ETH Zurich have now managed to eliminate the leukemic and hematopoietic stem cells more selectively in an animal model. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy not only destroy the cancerous and hematopoietic stem cells, but affect all dividing cells---i.e. practically all tissues. "Compared to normal strategies, our method works very selectively, meaning that mature blood cells and other tissues are spared," says study leader Markus Manz, professor of medicine at UZH and director of the Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology at USZ.
The researchers used the novel cell therapy called CAR-T. This therapy uses genetic modification to equip human immune cells with a receptor, thanks to which they can systematically dock onto only the leukemic stem cells and the healthy hematopoietic stem cells and destroy them. This creates space for the new donor cells to be transplanted. To avoid that the genetically modified immune cells then also attack the hematopoietic stem cells from the donor, the CAR-T cells are deactivated after they have done their work and before the transplant. This is done by using an antibody against a surface marker of the CAR-T cells. After the donor stem cell transplant, they take their place in the bone marrow and begin to rebuild the hemopoietic and immune system.